The Spanish people are a mixture of indigenous peoples of the Iberian peninsula with others that were successively conquering its territory, occupying it for different periods of time. These ethnological elements encompass the Celts, a town on the Atlantic Europe, the Iberians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, all Mediterranean peoples, and the Swabians, Vandals and Visigoths (see Goths Pueblo), Germanic peoples. Semitic elements, especially Arab and Jew are also present. There are several linguistic groups in Spain have maintained a distinct cultural identity. These include the Basques, whose number is about 2.7 million, the Galicians, who are about 2 million, and the Catalans, amounting to 6 million. Gypsies scattered throughout the Spanish geography, form an important small ethnic group with strong personality.
are a nation, the main population of Spain and the Balearic, Pitius and Canary Islands belonging to it. The number of Spaniards in Spain and on the islands is about 25 million people (1970). Spaniards also live in Africa (in the colonies of Spain, Morocco, Algeria, etc. — about 350 thousand people), in Latin America (about 500 thousand people), in France (about 700 thousand people) and Germany (about 150 thousand people). I. speak Spanish. Believers are Catholics. The decisive role in the formation of the ancient population of Spain was played by the Iberian tribes, who created the so-called Almerian culture (3rd millennium BC) in the southeast of the peninsula in the Bronze Age. In the 1st half and the middle of the 1st millennium BC. e. the Celts migrated to the peninsula from the north, and the Phoenician (VIII century BC), Greek (late VII-VI centuries BC) and Carthaginian (from the VI century BC) settled in the south colonists. The Carthaginians were forced out by the Romans, who (2nd century BC — 5th century AD) had a great influence on the local tribes and, in particular, laid the foundation for the creation of local Romance languages based on the so-called. folk Latin. In the V-VI centuries. The Suebi, Vandals, Alans and Visigoths who conquered the peninsula also played a certain role in the formation of the Spaniards, but they themselves dissolved among the local Romanized population, having adopted its language and culture. A significant influence on the Spaniards was exerted by those who invaded in 711-718. to Spain, Arabs and Berbers, whom the local population called the Moors. The Reconquista (VIII — end of the XV centuries) ended with the unification of the Spanish territory and contributed to the formation of the national identity of the Spaniards, although the inhabitants of some areas until the XX century. continued to call themselves Castilians, Aragonese, Andalusians, etc., and in many ways retained their ethnographic identity. Due to the historical disunity of individual regions and the slow development of capitalism in Spain, the Spaniards formed a nation only at the end of the 19th century. The Spaniards had a great influence on the formation of many modern peoples of Latin America.