One of the largest art collections in the world is in the National Museum of Painting and Sculpture, known as the Museo del Prado, Madrid. The collection is especially rich in works of Spanish painters such as El Greco, Diego de Silva Velazquez, Bartolome Esteban Murillo and Goya, of Italian painters such as Sandro Botticelli and Titian, Rembrandt and Dutch. The Reina Sofia Art Center of Madrid specializes in twentieth century painting. Also in the capital it is Villahermosa Palace, which houses the Thyssen-Bornemisza collection.

The National Archaeological Museum in Madrid has pottery, brocades, tapestries and ivory carvings and Spanish library also houses the country's largest on archeology. The National Museum of Anthropology, also in Madrid, contains objects from ancient Spanish possessions in Equatorial Guinea, the Philippines and several South American countries like Bolivia. Another important museum in Madrid is the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. In Barcelona they include the Maritime Museum, the Spanish Village Museum and the Archaeological Museum, which boasts a large collection of prehistoric art, Phoenician, Greek, Roman and Visigoth.

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